R O J E C T S
F E A T U R E S
Concerning the days immediately before the thirty thousand Jews of Oradea and an additional eight thousand from surrounding areas were forced into two ghettos, Terez Mozes writes:
"On May 1, [1944,] the SS General Obersturmbannfόhrer Dannecker, who had organized the Warsaw ghetto, arrived in Oradea. On May 2, a larger unit of gendarmes arrived in Oradea from the other side of the Danube. At the same time, those who had been arrested were unexpectedly allowed to return home. And even these events did not open our eyes. Despite these warning signs, we were shocked by the announcements posted on walls on May 3 .
"People read the announcement in silence and rushed home. Within hours a wooden fence 2 metres high was being erected. This fence would surround the ghetto."
Camp Orders Within the Ghetto
Translated from the Hungarian
This camp order should be hung in every house within the territory of the ghetto, on the main entrance door, in multi-story buildings, also on every floor.
1. The "Ghetto" is guarded by gendarmes. Those who leave the ghetto without permission, are found in prohibited areas, or without gendarme escort, will be shot by gendarmes.
2. Only those Jews are allowed to leave the ghetto who receive orders from gendarmes on duty at the time. Stepping out is only permitted through the watch area on Zarda Street set up by gendarmes and with gendarme escort.
3. Contact with the outside world is totally prohibited. No private person is permitted to bring in or take out anything from the ghetto. Those stepping out or leaving are to be searched by the guards. There is no mail service. Smuggling is strictly prohibited.
1. Everyone is to stay in the appointed house and room. Allocations and lodgings are given according to new regulations by official gendarmes. Following the allocation procedure, rooms designated as lodging must be numbered in numerical order. The room numbers must be hung above the doors on cardboard tablets. The assistant gendarme officer in charge of house group command appoints naming room commanders and deputy room commanders from among Jewish men lodged there.
2. A lodging list (of names) in three copies is to be made out for each room. One copy is to hang on the outside of the door, one copy to be kept by the house commander with him at all times, one copy to be given for safekeeping to the deputy gendarme officer in charge of the house group. Only lists made out on official forms for this purpose and signed by the deputy gendarme officer in charge of the lodging group are valid. The lodging lists must be written with the same writing, in the same ink.
3. I divide the house groupings in such a manner that each deputy gendarme officer house group commander has under his command approximately 1500 Jews. I mark the house groups by Roman numerals.
4. In every house group the house commander names 15 (fifteen) men between the ages of 20 and 40 to enforce the camp orders. This number includes the commander and his deputy. The house commander and his deputy are to keep on themselves the list of names of those in charge with the maintenance of the decree. Those enforcing the camp orders are to wear on their left sleeve a yellow ribbon marked in red with the Roman numeral of the house group, the letter "R" and continuous Arabic numerals, e.g. "I.R.1." Arabic numeral one is to be worn by the commander, number two by his deputy, numbers 3-15 in sequence by other assignees.
5. During the day, between wake and retreat, only house commanders and orders enforcers are allowed to leave the house grounds designated as lodging, including its yard and garden, and only on official duty. The rest may circulate temporarily on the street only by order and with the order enforcer escort. Standing about, idle standing, is prohibited. Orders for leaving the house are given by gendarmes or Jewish order enforcers. Gathering outside the house and visiting are prohibited.
6. Wake up is at 6 o'clock. Retreat is at 20 o'clock. Between wake up and retreat each one must be in the allocated room. The room may be left only for taking care of personal needs to and from the designated place, for a short period of time.
7. Quiet should rule over the ghetto during the day also. Noise, singing, vociferation, arguing are prohibited. Between wake and retreat the ghetto is to be desolate and mute .
III. FOOD SUPPLY
1. The city authority will take care of supplying food when the food reserve brought (by the Jews) at the time of entering the ghetto runs out. The receipt and distribution of the foodstuffs will be handled by a central and house group provision supervising committee specifically named for this purpose. The central provision supervising committee will be made up of 1 president and 4 members, the house group provision supervising committee of 1 president and 2 members. The appointments are to be made by the managing Jewish leadership. Cooking is to be organized in common kitchens established separately within each house group by the provision supervising committee.
2. Breakfast is to be handed out at 7 o'clock, lunch at 12 o'clock, dinner at 18 o'clock. The food should be picked up by one designated person from each room, taking turns. Their appointment is the duty of the room commanders, while the appointees' line up, their escort to and from the kitchen is that of the house commanders'. Handing out the bread is to take place at dinner time.
3. Personnel needed to keep the kitchen functioning is named by the house commander. The kitchen is under the jurisdiction of the camp order decree's commanding officer.
4. The name list of the provision supervising committee members and that of the kitchen personnel must be hung in each provision reception area and each common kitchen. The committees' members (including the president) and the personnel shall wear a yellow ribbon marked in red with the Roman numeral of the house group and the letter "E", e.g. "III E".
5. It is prohibited to drink or possess alcoholic beverages. Those who possess such shall this very day hand it over to the gendarme committee operating on the first floor of the girl's high school.
IV. SERVICE REGULATION
1. In every matter concerning the occupants of the rooms one should go to the room commander, he in turn respectively to the house commander, house group commander, with important issues to the camp official designate unit: the camp gendarme officer on duty will make a final decision in the matter, by following the orders he received. Orders issued by the commander and their proclamation will take place in the same manner, from above down. This is the service regulation and everyone must abide by it.
V. INTERIOR SERVICE REGULATION
1. In every house group, the order enforcing commander shall name, everyday, from those below him, one person on day duty and one person on house group duty, and one on house group on call duty. Their time on duty lasts from 13 o'clock to next day 13 o'clock. The whereabouts of the those on duty is established by the house group commander. The person on day duty will keep watch from 13 o'clock until 1 o'clock at night, from 1 o'clock on, the other.
Their responsibilities include carrying out the enforcement of house regulations within their territory and taking care of messenger service.
For the assumption of duty and for instructions they should report to the order enforcing commander and house group commander at 11 o'clock.
2. The house group commander shall send every day a designate from among the order enforcing group for messenger/news service from 7 o'clock until 19 o'clock to the camp guard headquarters.
3. Those on duty should wear a board marked hanging from the neck, marked with the Roman numeral of the house group and the type of service they perform, e.g. "II.day duty." The boards are to be yellow colored, the writing black.
1. Within the house groups and within each house, the work needed to be performed, and its supervision, is the duty of the house group commander and house commander, respectively. Workers can be ordered for outside work strictly with the knowledge of the house group commander.
Inside work orders should be set according to gender and age, in such a manner that each person performs the work equally and by turns.
2. The orderly upkeep of the rooms and houses are the responsibility of the room commanders, respectively the house commander. The common area upkeep, such as streets, or for instance the kitchen hygiene, are the responsibility of the order enforcing commanders.
1. Every house group should have at least one attending physician and a sick room, the ghetto should have a common hospital and birthing home.
2. The appointment of the medical and nursing staff and determining their sphere of activity are made by the lead physician, who reports to the city's military doctor in chief with any professional question.
3. The doctors and nursing staff will wear a yellow armband with a red cross insignia.
4. The building which houses the sick room, the hospital and the birthing home should be marked by a hanging red cross flag.
5. The sick room, the hospital and the birthing home should have two separate lists, one with the names of the nursing staff and the other with the names of the sick. One copy of each, signed by the doctor should be hung on the outside of the entrance door.
6. Sick people from within the house groups should be presented to the doctor at 8 o'clock and a report made to him of those in sick-bed or possibly deceased. Presenting the sick as well as the report are the duties of the house commander. Interning one into the hospital or the birthing house should be handled by the house group doctor in agreement with the leading physician.
Doctors should write exact medical notes on each of the patients under their care.
7. It is the responsibility of the leading physician to isolate and treat contagious disease cases.
8. It is the responsibility of the leading physician to report immediately in writing every death, birth and contagious disease to the camp command headquarters (officer on duty) and in case of contagious disease occurrence take steps to apply the necessary protective measures.
9. Doctors in charge of house group's hygiene related ("hr") duties should also be on guard as to the strict following of the "hr" regulations. The hygienic inspection of the kitchens, toilets and latrines should be made conscientiously.
10. Sewer water, where there is no gutter system, can be emptied only in latrines or in other places designated by the house commander. If there is a stoppage within the sewer system, the toilets should immediately be locked and a latrine dug in a suitable location in the yard or garden. Debris and garbage can only be emptied in a place designated by the house commander. If within a yard there is great accumulation of garbage, it should be taken to a collecting place designated by the leading physician.
VIII. FIRE REGULATIONS
1. The fire brigade should be organized by each house commander within the building, by the house group commander within the house groups. The house fire brigade should be composed of 6-10 men, that of the house group of 25-30 men.
2. Over night, there should be pots filled with water in every room.
3. It is forbidden to smoke inside the rooms, in the attic area, or light a match, smoke, or burn an open flame near flammable materials.
IX. BLACKOUT, AIR RAID
1. Between wake and retreat it is prohibited to burn a white light or lamp in those rooms where complete blackout cannot be achieved.
2. Upon air raid signal, if the city air raid is sounded, everyone should stay put, go inside the house, and if there is a cellar find shelter within.
1. Anywhere within the ghetto, Hungarian or German officers, also superior headquarter commanders, should be greeted by men with removing head-cover, in a polite manner. They should stand at attention with uncovered head before them. If they go in a room, the person who first sees them should call out loud: attention! Standing at attention includes women inside the rooms as well. The room commander or house commander should present himself in military fashion and provide the requested information readily.
2. Common residence and living in common of several families requires that in regards of moral character or sexuality, nobody should forget himself and all should refrain from committing acts offending good taste.
1. Every change in the number of people, including internment or release from sick room or hospital, should be reported up to the level of house group command.
2. The house commanders are to report twice if special situations occur, at 8 A.M. and after retreat inspection, at 10:30 P.M. during common audience procedures at a place designated by the house group commander. In case of emergency a report should be made out of turn. At morning and evening audiences the order supervising commanders and persons on duty should also be present. They will all receive the orders to be carried out at this time.
1. Aside from house group order supervising commanders, I will control and enforce the carrying out of the house regulations within the territory of the ghetto by appointing continuously circulating gendarme patrols and local gendarme officers. Whoever does not abide by the orders goes to prison camp.
This camp order should be hung in every house within the territory of the ghetto, on the main entrance door, in multi story buildings, also on every floor.
Nagyvarad, May 10, 1944
[Translator's note: Some of the militaristic expressions used in this text are not known to the translator, therefore a word describing it or closely relating to the original term was used. ]
Posted: March 8, 2005
Those who leave the ghetto without permission will be shot by gendarmes.
Contact with the outside world is totally prohibited.
The lodging lists must be written with the same writing, in the same ink.
I mark the house groups by Roman numerals.
Quiet should rule over the ghetto during the day also. Noise, singing, vociferation, arguing are prohibited. Between wake and retreat the ghetto is to be desolate and mute.
Cooking is to be organized in common kitchens established separately within each house group by the provision supervising committee.
In every house group, the order enforcing commander shall name, every day, from those subordinate to him, one person on day duty and one person on house group duty, and one on house group on-call duty.
The boards are to be yellow colored, the writing black.
The sick room, the hospital and the birthing home should have two separate lists, one with the names of the nursing staff and the other with the names of the sick.
The hygienic inspection of the kitchens, toilets and latrines should be made conscientiously.
Over night, there should be pots filled with water in every room.
Anywhere within the ghetto, Hungarian
or German officers, and superior headquarter commanders, should be greeted
by men with removing head-cover, in a polite manner.
Nobody should forget himself and
all should refrain from committing acts offending good taste.
I will control and enforce the carrying out of the house regulations within the territory of the ghetto by appointing continuously circulating gendarme patrols.
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